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    About the entry of the black hole from the entry to the advanced talk, you want to know are here.

    2019-04-11 17:00:03

    CCTV Finance

    The first black hole photo in the history of the class is available!

    At 9 o'clock in the evening of Beijing time on the 10th, including China, many astronomers around the world simultaneously announced the first black hole.

    This visual evidence, which was captured by more than 200 researchers over eight years and from eight observation points on four continents, is expected to confirm that Einstein's general theory of relativity is still valid under extreme conditions.

    Humans first "see" the black hole. Einstein is right again.

    This is the first time humans have stared at a celestial body that once existed only in theory—a black hole with a small body and a very large mass. It is like a “swallowing mouth” of the universe, and even light cannot escape.

    The black hole that reveals the truth is located in the center of a giant elliptical galaxy M87 in Virgo, 55 million light-years from Earth, and the mass is about 6.5 billion times that of the sun. Its core area has a shadow surrounded by a crescent moon.

    More than a hundred years ago, Einstein's general theory of relativity took the lead in prophesying black holes and has since become a source of inspiration for many science fiction films. Scientists have successively confirmed the existence of black holes through some indirect evidence, but humans have never really "seen" black holes.

    "This is the first direct visual evidence that humans have obtained about black holes, confirming that Einstein's general theory of relativity is still established under extreme conditions," said Shen Zhiqiang, a Chinese scientist who participated in international cooperation and director of the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

    The extremely large black hole is the mysterious existence in the universe. This time, through the distribution of global observation points, a virtual telescope with a diameter of the Earth, the Black Hole Incident Vision Telescope, successfully realized the observation at 1.3 mm wavelength and successfully "captured" the black hole image after long-term data analysis.

    Due to the high sensitivity required, the eight radio telescopes that make up the global network are distributed in several high altitude areas, including volcanoes in Hawaii and Mexico, the Sierra Nevada in Spain, the Atacama Desert in Chile, and the South Pole. "The resolution of these telescopes is equivalent to a newspaper that can read the Nansha Islands in Mohe, Heilongjiang Province," said Lu Rusen, a Chinese scientist and researcher at the Shanghai Observatory.

    It’s still not enough to “see” and “see” clearly. It’s necessary to “see” the black hole. “When watching TV shows, you have to choose the right channel. The black hole image must also be in the proper band to observe.” Lu Rusen said that the best band is around 1 mm, the black hole halo of this band is the brightest, and the background “noise” is the smallest. .

    Shepard Dorman, the head of the international cooperation project and a professor at Harvard University, said that in the past 10 years, technological breakthroughs and cooperation with the Global Observatory have enabled humans to finally open a new window for observing black holes.

    Black hole entry to senior talk, see which level you are at

    As the first human black hole photo, it seems to be more dreamy than the black hole in the movie. Is it the same as you think?

    Whatever it is in your imagination, this is definitely the moment of human light -

    Before you rush to tell us, we have prepared the talks from entry level to beginner level, from intermediate level to advanced level. Please check the number below to see which level you are at.

    Entry level: How is the black hole formed?

    When a supermassive star ages, its thermonuclear reaction depletes the center of the fuel. Under the weight of the outer shell, the star collapses and finally forms a particle with an almost infinitely small density close to infinity. This is the singularity.

    Black holes, all the quality is concentrated here. A strong gravitational interface is created around the singularity, and light can't escape. The black hole is born.

    The existence of such a celestial body affects the surrounding environment in an extreme way, and has a great influence on the movement of the surrounding stars and gases. There is also a bright accretion around the black hole, and a very spectacular jet phenomenon. These wonderful universes The phenomenon also indirectly exposes the existence of black holes.

    Yan Lijun, a researcher at the National Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences: When light can't escape, we can't see it. It's a black sphere. On the other hand, things fall out and can't come out, so we call it a black hole.

    The black hole was derived from the general theory of relativity. It is true that humans guessed it at the beginning...

    However, it was discovered that everything seems to be consistent with what we suspected!

    Shen Zhiqiang, member of the EHT International Cooperation Department of the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences: According to Einstein's theory, although the black hole is in the horizon, any light can't come out, but at the edge of the black hole, it is very close to the black hole, and its strong gravitational field will make it Light is bent or a lens effect is produced.

    Allow time and space to bend and accumulate the surrounding gas, emitting strong electromagnetic radiation. In this way, the black hole is like immersed in a bright area like a glowing gas, which will form a dark area similar to the shadow.

    And these black hole shadows are the images we can see closest to the black hole itself. The "Event Vision Telescope" also directly reveals the black hole shadow, revealing a lot of mysterious information such as the huge quality of the black hole.

    Elementary: Who is the black hole that was taken this time?

    Although the names are called black holes, they are different. Just as people have high, low, fat and thin points, the black hole family can also be divided into three categories:

    The first category: the first and the smallest quality - the star black hole (the quality is dozens of times the sun ~ hundreds of times);

    The second category: medium-sized - medium-quality black holes (quality is about a thousand times to tens of thousands of times the sun);

    The third category: the giant in the black hole - supermassive black hole (quality is several million times more than the sun).

    The star-rated black holes are too small, and it is almost impossible to photograph them directly with the existing technology.

    So the protagonist who appeared yesterday was a supermassive black hole!

    Supermassive black holes can be regarded as big BOSS, this level of black holes, and even hundreds of billions of sun quality!

    The two candidate black holes for this joint observation are the Sgr A* black hole in the center of the Milky Way and the M87 black hole outside the Milky Way!

    It can be seen that Sgr A* is close to us, but the quality is small. Although M87 is far away, the quality is big enough! Looking at the size of the two on the earth is relatively close, so it has become the first choice for taking pictures!

    The mass of the black hole of the M87 is about 6.4 billion times that of the sun. It is also one of the largest black holes in the universe, and the Kagangtuya black hole in the science fiction movie "Interstellar" is just 100 million times the quality of the sun!

    Intermediate: How was the black hole taken?

    The black hole is a kind of celestial mass with very strong gravitational force. In a certain area around it, even the light can't escape. This boundary is called the “event horizon”.

    The "Event Vision Telescope" project consists of researchers from many countries and regions around the world. They use radio telescopes distributed around the world to form a huge virtual telescope with a diameter equivalent to the diameter of the Earth.

    In April 2017, the “Event Vision Telescope” launched a photo shoot of the black hole. It took about two years to “flush”, and some domestic institutions including the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences participated in the international cooperation.

    Advanced: Why do photos have to be "washed" for 2 years?

    In short, it is necessary to repair the map -

    Because it is not so much a photo, it is better to measure a lot of data, you have to do a visual processing. This data is very, very, very large...

    Moreover, no one on the planet knows whether this picture is right or wrong, so scientists have to use different problem-solving ideas to verify that the results are correct.

    In recent years, multinational research teams have been doing these processing and verification tasks separately.

    Some people doubt that it takes so much time and energy to take a photo.

    The black hole comes from the theory of relativity. Whether relativity is accurate as a basic physics theory actually affects everything on earth, including communication, energy, and so on.

    And scientifically speaking, there is no "useful" or "useless", and all unknowns are worth exploring.

    As one of the most important prophecies of general relativity, black holes have always been the most mysterious and even the most fascinating.

    Hot searchMilky Way

    Editor in charge: Robot RF13015

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